Mosquitoes are believed to have evolved around 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era (206–135 million years ago) with the earliest known fossils from the Cretaceous era (144–65 million years ago). A mosquito's principal food is nectar or a similar sugar source. There are over 2500 different species of mosquitoes throughout the world.
Mosquitoes cause a great threat to human’s health and existence than any other animal species. They transmit many deadly diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, dengue and encephalitis, which kill and debilitate millions of humans worldwide despite today’s medical advances. Mosquitoes belong to the family culicidae of order diptera. They have four distinct stages in their life cycle namely egg, larva, pupa & adult. All insects including mosquitoes need three things for survival air, food & water.
Mosquitoes are found worldwide from the tropics to the Arctic, and from below sea level to altitudes of 14000 feet, about 3200 mosquito species, in 39 genera, are currently recognized in the world. Mosquitoes have been responsible for more deaths in the world than the sum of all human conflict since the world began, resulting in the Guinness book of records recording them as the deadliest living thing on earth.
A single female mosquito may lay 100 to 300 eggs at a time and may average 1,000 to 3,000 offspring during her life span. Vector of Dengue Fever (DF) and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)
In Sri Lanka there are three kinds of mosquitoes, widely spread all over the island
Mosquito-borne diseases have changed the course of history many times:
1542 - Hernando DeSoto in Florida lost half of his troops in Florida to Yellow Fever
1741 - England sent Admiral Edward Vernon to Mexico and the Louisiana Territory with 27,000 men - 20,000 were killed by Yellow Fever
1802 - the brother of Napoleon, Charles LeClerc, came to the Louisiana Territory with 33,000 soldiers and lost 29,000 of them to Yellow Fever
1914 - in the United States there were 600,000 cases of Malaria, most in Florida and California - by 1930 this number still was over 6,000 cases per year
1923 - Russia had 5 million cases of malaria with over 60,000 deaths
2002 - in Africa, malaria still kills as many as half of all children by the age of 5 years in many of the under-developed areas
- The average lifespan of a female mosquito is 3 to 100 days; the male is 10 to 20 days
- Mosquito adults feed on flower nectar and juices of fruits for flight energy.
- The female requires a blood meal for egg development
- Depending on the species, female mosquitoes may lay 100 to 300 eggs at a time and may average 1,000 to 3,000 during their life span
- Mosquitoes remain within 1-mile radius of their breeding site
- Several species of mosquito are known carriers of significant disease of human and domestic animals
- The average mosquito weighs about 2.5 milligrams.
- The average mosquito takes in about 5-millionths of a liter of blood during feeding.
- Mosquitoes find hosts by sight (they observe movement); by detecting infra-red radiation emitted by warm bodies; and by chemical signals (mosquitoes are attracted to carbon dioxide and lactic acid, among other chemicals) at distances of 25 to 35 meters.
- Salt marsh mosquitoes can migrate up to 40 miles for a meal.
- Bigger people are often more attractive to mosquitoes because they are larger targets and they produce more mosquito attractants, namely CO2 and lactic acid.
- Active or fidgety people also produce more CO2 and lactic acid.
- Women are usually more attractive to mosquitoes than men because of the difference in hormones produced by the sexes.
- Smelly feet are attractive to mosquitoes – as is Limburger Cheese.
- Dark clothing attracts mosquitoes.
- Movement increased mosquito biting up to 50% in some research tests.
- A full moon increased mosquito activity 500% in one study
STOP DENGUE " DENGUE HAS COME TO STAY "
Dengue fever also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus spread by the Aides Mosquito. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic morbilliform skin rash. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome
The origins of the word "dengue" are not clear, but one theory is that it is derived from the Swahili phrase Ka-dinga pepo, which describes the disease as being caused by an evil spirit. The Swahili word dinga may possibly have its origin in the Spanish word dengue, meaning fastidious or careful, which would describe the gait of a person suffering the bone pain of dengue fever. However, it is possible that the use of the Spanish word derived from the similar-sounding Swahili. Slaves in the West Indies having contracted dengue were said to have the posture and gait of a dandy, and the disease was known as "dandy fever
The first record of a case of probable dengue fever is in a Chinese medical encyclopedia from the Jin Dynasty (265–420 AD) which referred to a "water poison" associated with flying insects. There have been descriptions of epidemics in the 17th century, but the most plausible early reports of dengue epidemics are from 1779 and 1780, when an epidemic swept Asia, Africa and North America. From that time until 1940, epidemics were infrequent
The first outbreak of Dengue fever was reported in Sri Lanka 1965 & since then there had been outbreaks to date. In the last decade there is a significant increase in the incidence of dengue.
Aedes Aegypti Black in color, with banded legs and lyre shape white bands on its thorax, vector of Dengue fever. Aedes aegypti prefers to breed indoors, in clean satagnent water, its life cycle is short.
- Females bite any time during sunrise or sunset.
- Don't feel the bite
- The mosquito become ineffective 7 days after biten person
- Average life span 14 days
- Lay eggs three times in a life span 100 eggs each
- Eggs can lie in dry place upto 9 months
- Caused by a virus
- Transmitted by aedes aegypti and some instance by the aedes albopictus mosquitoes
- No direct human to human transmission
- All tropical parts of world, both urban and rural
- Year-round transmission, but rainy season increases mosquito breeding
- High fever (3-7 days)
- Intense headache
- Painful joints and muscles
- Pain behind eyes
- Often a rash (may appear as fever reduces)
- Blood spots under the skin
- Bleeding from gums
- Nose bleeding
- Vomiting blood
- No specific treatment – no curative drug is available
- Use supportive care – pain relief, drink fluids, rest
- Use panadol
- DONOT use aspirin, ibuprofen
- Mosquito repellent when outdoors during daytime
- Fly wire/screening on doors and windows
- Mosquito coils or vapour mats
- Mosquito nets for children or elderly who sleep during the day
- None of these are effective by themselves alone, use combination.
- DONOT use aspirin, ibuprofen
- What is dengue fever?
Dengue fever is a disease caused by the dengue virus which can be transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. The incubation period of dengue fever normally ranges from between 3 to 14 days.
- What is dengue hemorrhagic fever?
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more severe form of dengue and can be fatal if unrecognized or not treated.
- How is dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever spread?
Dengue is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are infected when they take a blood meal from a dengue-infected person. The virus does not spread from human-to-human.
- Can dengue be spread from person to person?
Dengue fever cannot be spread directly from person to person. It is only transmitted/spread to humans by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. A mosquito is infected when it takes take blood meal from a dengue-infected person. The virus does not spread from human-to-human.
- When do the symptoms start to appear?
After the person is infected with the virus, there is generally an average of 4-7 days of incubation before the onset of symptoms.
- What are the common symptoms of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever?
Dengue fever is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, (which can last up to 7 days) and is accompanied by intense headache, body aches, joint pains, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and the development of skin rashes. A blood test will often show low platelets.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever presents similarly to dengue fever but is associated with more severe bleeding problems (e.g. gum bleeding, nose bleeding and bleeding into the skin and internal organs) along with evidence of plasma leakage.
- Can people suffer from Dengue and not appear ill?
Yes. Dengue infection without obvious symptoms tend to occur more frequently in children. Dengue infection in adults are more likely to be symptomatic.
- Is there any treatment for dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever?
There is no specific treatment for dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, supportive care with intravenous fluids and frequent blood test monitoring reduces complications of the disease. In severe cases, blood transfusions may be required.
- Can dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever lead to death?
Yes. Death can occur in a small minority of persons especially if the infection is not recognized early or early treatment is not sought.
- How to prevent dengue fever from spreading?
Dengue fever can be prevented through measures to prevent mosquito breeding around the house and to protect against mosquito bites. More information about the prevention of mosquito breeding can be found by visiting www.pestcontrol.lk
Precautions include wearing long-sleeved clothes, using mosquito coils and electric vapor mats, and using insect repellent over the exposed parts of the body.
Adoption of good daily habits such as clearing blockages from the roof gutter, clearing leaves and stagnant water from drains, removing water from potted plants daily, avoiding the use of pot plates and changing the water in vases everyday will also help to eliminate the chances of mosquito breeding.
- Is there a vaccination against dengue?
There is currently no vaccines available that can prevent dengue.
- If I caught dengue fever before , will I be infected again?
There are 4 strains of dengue viruses. Infection with one strain will provide protection against only that particular strain. Future infection by other strains is possible.
- Will I have to be hospitalized if I come down with dengue fever?
Hospitalization is recommended for patients who have severe symptoms, and for patients with signs (eg, low platelet counts) that may lead to hemorrhage (internal bleeding).
- My neighbor is down with dengue fever, what should I do to protect my family?
The best protection against dengue is to guard against mosquito bites and to ensure no mosquitoes are breeding in your home
- I have low platelet count because of dengue fever. What is the normal platelet when I recover?
A normal platelet count would range from about 140 to 440 platelets x 10 9 /Litre, or about 140,000 to 440,000 platelets in each micro liter of blood. Each lab may differ slightly.
Current hospital guidelines allow patients who are recovering well and have a rising platelet trend or platelet above 70,000 to be discharged.
Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from the aedes aegypti mosquito, Chikungunya was first described in Tanzania, Africa in 1952 and has since been identified repeatedly in the West, Central and Southern Africa and many areas of Asia, and has been cited as the cause of numerous human epidemics in those areas since that time. The biggest Chikungunya out break was in 2006/2007.
Aedes albopictus is considered the primary vector for chikungunya. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings, although other mosquitoes may have only slightly different patterns. The mosquito is most frequently found in the tropics. Aedes aegypti also spreads chikungunya
- The mosquito bites humans only between a few hours after dawn till an hour or so after
- Can feel the bite
- Outdoor Mosquito - breed in the garden
The first case of chikungunya has been reported from Sri Lanka in 1969. The major chikungunya outbreak was in 2006/07 spreading from Colombo to the east of the island. The Epidemiology unit of the Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has placed a Chikungunya Alert in July 2007 with recent outbreaks India.
- The symptoms of Chikungunya include fever which can reach (102.2 °F)
- Arthritis affecting multiple joints which can be debilitating
- High fever and crippling joint pain are the prevalent complaint
- The fever typically lasts for two days and abruptly comes down
- However, other symptoms, namely joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an
- Extreme degree of prostration last for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days
- There is no specific treatment for Chikungunya.
- Vaccine trials were carried out in a few countries in 2000, but funding for the project was discontinued and there is no vaccine currently available for Chikungunya.
- The CDC fact sheet on Chikungunya advises against using Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended for arthritic pain and fever
- Infected persons should limit further exposure to mosquito bites, stay indoors and under a mosquito net.
Chikungunya is transmitted by the dengue mosquito. The most effective means of prevention are to protect yourselves against any contact with disease carrying mosquitoes. Hence, prevention tips are similar to those for dengue fever:
- Avoid mosquito bites by using mosquito repellents, mosquito coils or protective clothing
- Use mosquito nets to avoid mosquito bites whenever possible
- Get rid of mosquito breeding sites where water can collect after rain
- These usually are discarded tyres, plastic containers, leaf axils, coconut shells, blocked gutters, birdbaths and flower pots
- A Special adultacide's & larvicide's treatment should be carried out
- Additionally, a person with Chikungunya fever should limit their exposure to mosquito bites in order to avoid further spreading of the infection to others
Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease spread by the female Anopheles mosquitoes that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Each year, it causes disease to approximately 650 million people and kills between one and three million, most of them young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is commonly-associated with poverty, but is also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development.
Malaria has been difficult to control in Sri Lanka due to population increases, large-scale human colonization in disease-endemic areas, rapid agro-ecological change. The incidence of malaria has been reduced by over four-fold between 1994 and 2001, from 1,520 per 100,000 people to 350 per 100,000 people. However, since the mid-1990s, there has been no significant reduction in the malaria mortality rate. By 2002, malaria was in decline in all districts except in the north and east, where the number of malaria cases increased by 92.3%. The lowest percentages of malaria cases were from the Western and Southern Provinces with 0.9%. In 2001, the incidence rate of malaria was 350 per 100,000 people, with 53 deaths.
- Joint pain
- Anemia caused by hemolysis, hemoglobinuria.
- Feeling of tingling in the skin
- Sudden coldness and fever and sweating lasting four to six hours, occurring every two days Children with malaria frequently exhibit abnormal posturing, a sign indicating severe brain damage
Active malaria infection with P. falciparum is a medical emergency requiring hospitalization. Infection with P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae can often be treated on an outpatient basis. Treatment of malaria involves supportive measures as well as specific ant malarial drugs. When properly treated, someone with malaria can expect a complete cure. There is no vaccine available for malaria.
Breeding areas are in areas of stagnant water, such as flower vases, uncovered barrels, buckets, and discarded tires, but the most dangerous areas are wet shower floors and toilet bowls, as they allow the mosquitoes to breed right in the residence.
EXTERMINATORS 4 Ds TO STOP DENGUE
Many mosquito problems in your neighbourhood are likely to come from water-filled containers that you, the resident, can help to eliminate. All mosquitoes require water in which to breed. Be sure to drain any standing water around your house
- Dispose of any tires. Tires can breed thousands of mosquitoes.
- Drill holes in the bottom of recycling containers.
- Clear roof gutters of debris.
- Clean pet water dishes regularly.
- Check and empty children's toys.
- Repair leaky outdoor faucets.
- Change the water in bird baths at least once a week.
- Canoes and other boats should be turned over.
- Avoid water collecting on pool covers.
- Empty water collected in tarps around the yard or on woodpiles.
- Plug tree holes.
- Even the smallest of containers that can collect water can breed hundreds to thousands of mosquitoes. They don't need much water to lay their eggs. (bottles, barrels, buckets, overturned garbage can lids etc.
Choose a mosquito repellent that has been registered by the Environmental Protection Agency. Registered products have been reviewed, approved, and pose minimal risk for human safety when used according to label directions
Here are some rules to follow when using repellents:
- Read the directions on the label carefully before applying
- Apply repellent sparingly, only to exposed skin (not on clothing)
- Keep repellents away from eyes, nostrils and lips
- Do not inhale or ingest repellents or get them into the eyes
- The American Academy of Paediatrics suggests that DEET-based repellents can be used on children as young as two months of age.
- Generally, the recommended concentrations of 30% or less
- Avoid applying repellents children's hands that are likely to have contact with eyes or mouth
- Pregnant and nursing women should minimize use of repellents
- Never use repellents on wounds or irritated skin
- Use repellent sparingly and reapply as needed
- Saturation does not increase efficacy
- Wash repellent-treated skin after coming indoors
- If a suspected reaction to insect repellents occurs
- Wash treated skin & take the repellent container to the physician
- Wear light colour, loose fitting clothing
- Some of the 176 mosquito species are attracted to dark clothing
- Some can bite through tight-fitting clothes.
- When practical, wear long sleeves and pants
Exterminators MOZZI MAX
- Larvacide Treatment
- Adultcide Treatment
- ULV Treatment
- Fogging Treament ( Except Aedes Aegypti Misquito)
- Mozzi Mist
- Wall Treatment
Mosquito Control : Integrated Mosquito Management System
The goal of IMMS is to prevent or reduce problems caused by mosquitoes. IMMS is based on ecological, economic and social criteria and integrates multidisciplinary methodologies into pest management strategies that are practical and effective to protect public health and the environment and improve the quality of life.
The treatment will be carried by applying pesticides to control larvae (larvicides) or adults (adulticides). Applications of adulticides or larvicides are made after the presence of mosquitoes has been demonstrated by surveillance procedures.
An efficient way to control mosquitoes is to find and eliminate their breeding sites. Eliminating large breeding areas (source reduction) such as swamps or sluggishly moving streams or ditches may require community-wide effort. This is usually a task for your organized mosquito control program.
The second method used would be larviciding. This utilizes the application of insecticides targeted at the immature mosquitoes - the larvae or pupae. These are applied to bodies of water harboring the larvae.
The adult mosquitoes will be controlled by using insecticide, mist blowing, fogging treatments & electronic insect killers, mosquito bio-traps & other mosquito trapping devices.